miércoles, 17 de mayo de 2017

Dialogue of Opposites: A Jungian Exploration of Suzy Lee’s Border Trilogy


Maria Camila Correa was born in Colombia and relocated to the United States at the age of seven. She received a Bachelor’s in Photojournalism from the University of Florida, with minors in Spanish and Anthropology, and a Master’s in Children’s Literature and Literacies from the University of Glasgow. The following is a summary of her Master’s dissertation. She spends her free time taking photos and on the floor of the children’s section at the local bookstore, poring over the details of newly published picturebooks.


My investigation focuses on Korean picturebook artist Suzy Lee’s Border Trilogy, consisting of three nearly-wordless picturebooks. Each invites us to enter the world of an imaginative little girl, a world divided by the border between two pages. To analyse the picturebooks and derive meaning from them, I called upon the theories developed by Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung. His branch of psychoanalysis – analytical psychology – is concerned with the developmental process of the individual psyche, a process known as individuation.
My argument is that each of the books in Lee’s Border Trilogy depicts this process of individuation as experienced by the protagonist. Ultimately, I focus on the girl’s maturation, the changes brought about by the experiences she encounters in each of the books and by the integration of opposite elements. I argue that the application of analytical psychology to the analysis of texts, despite the heavy criticism it has faced, still has something to offer: a fresh perspective from which to penetrate the multiple meanings a text can harbor.


Mirror (2010), Wave (2008), and Shadow (2010) form the Border Trilogy, so called because they each play with the border between illusion and reality, and with the physical borders of the material book – particularly the gutter that forms at the intersection of both pages.


Mirror invites readers to witness the interaction between a girl and her own reflection. Although wary of the other at first, the girl’s curiosity brings them closer, and closer still, until both figures disappear into the gutter of the book. When they re-emerge, each is independent of the other. This upsets the girl, who realizes her counterpart is no longer mirroring her movements, and she gives the other side a push. The mirror falls and breaks, shattering the image of the second girl.

From a Jungian perspective, Mirror illustrates the stages of the individuation process. The overall pattern of one girl, then two, back to one and their movements towards and away from each other reflect the push and pull between the ego and the self during maturation. Figure 1, taken from Alschuler’s chapter in The Cambridge Companion to Jung (Young-Eisendrath and Dawson, 1997), represents the stages of individuation, from “unconscious unity” to “conscious wholeness.”

Figure 1: Stages of the Individuation Process

Humans, according to Jung, are born into the collective unconscious, initially lacking any sense of self-identity. The first stage of individuation occurs during infancy when the ego emerges from the unconscious and becomes the center of personal identity. The second stage is marked by the alienation of the ego, which produces two facets of personality: the persona, the outward-facing identity that adapts to the standards of society, and the Shadow, the inner personality containing instincts and repressed emotions. The third and final stage concerns the reintegration of the ego with the self, which is accomplished through the withdrawal of projections (the integration of the Shadow) and the simultaneous growth of consciousness.

In Mirror, the instant the girl catches sight of her reflection is the moment she becomes aware of her own image, a first step on the journey toward consciousness. The alienation of the ego or split in personality is represented by the introduction of a second entity, that of the mirror image. The girls befriend each other, symbolizing the consolidation of their ego identity. Although both merge completely at one point, the result is emptiness instead of wholeness. Before integration can occur, a confrontation must take place. The following pages witness the struggle between the persona and shadow: the persona embodied by the reflection, a superficial identity, and the shadow manifested in the original image. The reflection represents what the external world sees of the girl’s personality, and this does not always correspond to the actions and emotions that occur within her. This tension between opposites eventually leads to the girl’s rejection of the other, culminating in the destruction of the projection and in the realization of the Self, which “is like that immediacy and simplicity of the beginning, because it is the result, that which has returned into itself…” (Kelly, 1993: 27). This is seen in the parallel between the first and final illustrations, which feature the girl in the exact same pose.


“I have a feeling that the ebb and flow of waves share the same rhythm as books. And above all there is the fact that when we look at the sea we all see the same thing, no matter what part of the world we find ourselves in: children and adults alike play to chase the waves and escape from them. There is an instinctive happiness implicit in that game. You try not to get wet, but, in the end, succumb to the waves.” (Lee, 2014: 40-41)

Wave transports readers to a beach, where a girl, accompanied by five seagulls, playfully engages in silent dialogue with a wave. Eventually, the girl crosses the boundary that separates her from the wave, and joyfully splashes around in the water. When an intimidating wave forms, the girl rushes back to the other side, and, thinking she is safe, sticks her tongue out at the wave. As if instigated, the wave crashes onto the girl’s page. When it retreats, we see the girl, drenched and surprised to find the shells the wave has left behind.

Lee’s quote above refers to the universality of this story’s premise, a universality that Jung would likely argue is tied to our collective unconscious: a depository of humanity’s ancestral knowledge. I propose, then, that in the case of Wave the ocean can be seen as a representation of the collective unconscious. As she “succumbs to the wave,” the little girl is immersed in the multitude of experiences that form the collective unconscious. Her ego, the center of consciousness, is to be shaped by this knowledge; “The development of the ego is firmly rooted in the child’s relation to group pressures. Its structure is grounded in the values of the collective” (Gray, 1996: 172).

Although she remains an individual in the end – separate from the wave – she is nevertheless changed by it, as it evident by the change in color of her dress and shoes. The shells deposited by the sea could be seen as archetypes, which are, like shells, hollow (that is, they are not determined by content but by form, and exist as an outline of the representation that will emerge once it is brought to consciousness). The girl’s mother, a visual manifestation of the girl’s ancestry, presumably watches from afar as her daughter is inducted into the collective consciousness. Her shoes are also stained blue; she has also undergone this rite of passage.


In Shadow, a girl standing on boxes in what appears to be an attic turns on a light, creating shadow representations of each object in the room, and the girl begins to move and make figures of her own shadow. Slowly, the shadows transform into their own entities, simultaneously causing the ‘real’ objects to disappear from the opposite page. The girl’s shadow becomes a wolf that violates the boundary and crosses into the girl’s realm. Afraid, the girl dives into the jungle land of the shadows. Alone, the wolf begins to cry, until the girl and the other creatures befriend him. Their ensuing celebration is interrupted by a call beckoning the girl back to reality. She turns off the light, but readers observe the shadows come to life again in her absence.

According to Charles Butler (in Reynolds and Grenby, 2011: 174), the shadow is “The place where we project all the qualities that we possess but do not wish to acknowledge, although according to Jung it is also the seat of creativity, and must be acknowledged in order to achieve psychic health.” In the case of Shadow, the creative potential of the girl’s unconscious shadow is evident in the richness of the world she envisions.

The shadow seeks outward expression through projection, or the transposition of something unconscious onto an outer object (Franz, 1998). This is perhaps why the girl’s shadow appears in the form of a wolf instead of her own image: she is projecting (quite literally) her own dark qualities onto other entities. This can also be seen as a continuation of Lee’s game of opposites; she refers to the wolf as masculine (2014), creating several dichotomies: female vs. male, human vs. animal, tame vs. wild.

Jung claims that the shadow is “merely somewhat inferior, primitive, unadapted, and awkward; not wholly bad. It even contains childish or primitive qualities […]” (Hull and Jung, 2014: 134). This becomes clear in Shadow when the wolf begins to cry. He is simply misunderstood, and what had come across as aggression was perhaps only a playful attempt at interaction. The changing attitude of the girl towards the wolf represents successful integration, acknowledgement and respect for its existence. It is no longer a scary monster trying to swallow her whole, but a friend who has gained relative independence and who can be revisited.


The visual dialogue in each book reaches its climax when the two opposing elements merge or come together, diluting the border. In order for this to occur, Lee’s protagonist has to overcome fear: fear of an uncanny reflection, fear of the wave, fear of the wolf. She has to weigh the intensity of her curiosity against that of her fear, and decides each time to honor the former. Each time, too, she is rewarded for her bravery with an experience that breeds moments of unadulterated joy. Lee’s protagonist takes chances, and in the process learns something new, mainly the realisation that things aren’t always what they appear to be. One’s reflection may act unexpectedly, formidable waves may bring tiny gifts, and wolves that seem frightening may only wish to be understood. Jung saw the archetype of the child as closely linked to the process of individuation, claiming that it “paves the way for a future change of personality” and “anticipates the figure that comes from the synthesis of conscious and unconscious elements in the personality. It is therefore a symbol which unites the opposites” (Jung, cited in Pietikäinen, 1999: 229).

Exposure to postmodern picturebooks like Lee’s engages children in abstract thinking from a very young age. One of the primary goals of education is to form a bridge between the student and the world, but also a bridge inward, cultivating identity and self-knowledge. If we agree that this also applies to literature and the act of reading, we can better appreciate the contribution of Jung’s theories.

Franz, M. (1998). C.G. Jung: His Myth in Our Time. Toronto: Inner City Books.
Gray, R. (1996). Archetypal explorations. London: Routledge.
Hull, R. F. C, and C. G Jung. Collected Works Of C.G. Jung, Volume 11: Psychology And Religion: West And East. 1st ed. Princeton University Press, 2014. Print.
Kelly, S. (1993). Individuation and the absolute. New York: Paulist Press.
Lee, S. (2008). Wave. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
Lee, S. (2010). Shadow. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
Lee, S. (2010). Mirror. New York: Seven Footer Kids.
Lee, S. (2014). La trilogía del límite. Albolote, [Granada]: Barbara Fiore.
Pietikäinen, P. (1999). C.G. Jung and the psychology of symbolic forms. Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica.
Reynolds, K. and Grenby, M. (2011). Children's literature studies. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Young-Eisendrath, P. and Dawson, T. ed., (1997). The Cambridge Companion to Jung. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

viernes, 31 de marzo de 2017

The role of the mediator in an online literary discussion with Spanish and Mexican students

Edgar Armando Córdova García specialised in teaching Spanish as a native language at the Universidad Virtual del ITESM and has a Masters in Children’s and Young Adult Literature from the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Currently he coordinates the Programme for the Mediation of Reading and Writing for the Department of Education of Durango state (Mexico).

Research question

The aim of this study was to describe the functions of the mediator in an online literary discussion with young people from Spain and Mexico. Hence, the following question was raised: What actions does the mediator of an online literary discussion display that facilitate the making of inferences by participants with regards to a text?


This study adheres to the works surrounding the literary discourse of the past decade (Fittipaldi, 2008; Cuperman, 2010; Colomer and Fittipaldi et. al, 2012). It starts from the premise that, in school: “literary discussion is a didactic instrument for the comprehension of texts and the creation of reading habits” (Colomer and Fittipaldi 2012, 87).

The literary discussion was carried out on the LEOTECA[1] platform, between the 1st and 16th of March 2016. The participants were 23 students who attend secondary school in Mexico and Spain. The students from Mexico belong to the Telesecundaria[2] “Mano Amiga” of the city of Durango and the young people from Spain study at the Instituto Escuela Secundaria “Diego Jesús Jiménez” in the Province of Cuenca.

The selected text is called “En un Latido” (In a Heartbeat) and is part of the anthology by Montse Ganges (2016). The story is narrated by the Chac Mool[3]. It is about Balam[4], a farmer who is enslaved by the Mayans, and Canek, a young prince from Chicén Itzá and champion of the Ball Game[5]. Canek chooses Balam as his companion, and together they win many battles and are praised by their people. One day, however, Canek decides not to fight and they lose the game. As a result, both are sacrificed.

Methodology and design

As part of the research, the readers’ responses were analysed using a qualitative approach based on the categories of literary responses outlined in the Visual Journeys project (Fittipaldi, 2012), and the functions of the mediators were classified (Munita and Manresa, 2012). The resulting data was analysed by means of graphs or figures. The figures are segments of the tree (literary discussion) that describe the interactions between the participants. This allows the identification of the reader response paths and the construction of inferences.

Emphasis on the content of the illustrations. Identification, enumeration, description and the establishment of simple connections.
Search for the meaning of the illustrations. Speculation, prediction, inference, analysis, synthesis, evaluation and critical thinking. Use of reasoning and proposal for interpretation.
Identification and description of the elements of the narrative: characters, actions, and framework.
Interpretation of the elements that construct the narrative: the character’s motivations, inferences stemming from the actions, relationship between the frame and the story, etc.
(The book as a material and artistic object)
Who? What? Where?
Identification and description of the book as an object, of the paratext and other visual elements, of the communication situation (author, readers, edition, etc.), and of the concept of reading.
Interpretation of the diverse visual elements that are typical of the communication situation proposed by the text.
Awareness of the artistic intentions of the author and the role of the implicit reader.

Intertextual and intercultural (The cultural and intercultural connections of the text)
Identification and allusion to Intertextual, metaphorical, and symbolic references of cultural representations.
Establish the relations between the text and the intertextual, metaphorical, and symbolic representations previously mentioned.
Use of  Intertextual knowledge as a tool for interpreting the story and negotiating meaning.
Personal experience
Establish simple connections between the text and the life experience of the readers.
Establish thoughtful connections between the text and the life experience of the readers.
Table 1 Categorization model of reader’s responses from Visual Journeys’ project.
Source: Fittipaldi (2012)

It was thought that the qualitative paradigm from Discourse Analysis could constrain and explain the object of the study through the use of a priori categories, thus viewing the readers’ responses as a web of discourse. Rapley (2007) states that the analysis of conversation focuses on how speakers interact to achieve their goals. In this case, the mediator’s questions are prompts to speak and the readers’ responses are a bridge between literal meaning and inference based on the narration.

Following Munita and Manresa (2012), the functions of the mediator used in this study are to:

  a.     Help search for textual evidence
  b.     Help in the construction and foundation of arguments
  c.     Relate the discussion to other books and previous knowledge
  d.     Offer a metalanguage with which to talk about books
  e.     Reformulate, synthesise and systematise what is said in order to progress the discussion and establish concepts and content


In this research, the functions of the mediator were analysed based on the literary planning achievements (Chambers, 2007), through three figures that represent the interactions of the network of literary discussion.

One of the functions of mediation is to help in the search for textual indices or clues. Likewise, the mediator should try to get the text to leave “something,” intimate, personal and mysterious that is never fully defined by the reader or the text. For this reason, the mediator asked: “When you came to the character Canek, what stories did you see in your head while reading?” Carolinapc visualizes Canek entrusting his life to Balam. Meanwhile, Marisolpc mentally recreates the scene where Balam is intentionally losing. In both cases the theme of the discussion is the binary of life and death.

Figure 1. Textual clues on the binary of life and death

The child Dsd8 states: "I imagined bloodthirsty people waiting for some to die, fearful yet courageous players, who at the time of dying thought about their loved ones, and those who were winning, the seconds seeming endless to them, and those who were losing, hoping for them to become eternal." In this statement the word blood emerges as a symbol of both life and death. The words courage and fear also appear, allusions to Eros and Thanatos. Therefore, this segment of the conversational network was titled: Figure 1. Textual clues on the binary of life and death.

Another duty of the mediator, similar to that of the philosopher, is to situate themselves in the question rather than in the answer. That is, to never affirm that a question is completely defined and thus to place themselves in a synthetic perspective between the reader-text and search for dialectic thought.

For this reason, the mediator selects a question whose answer can have two simultaneous strands. The question is: “In the end, the Chac Mool says ‘but do not feel sorry for me, because I was once someone very important: I was the Balam, the noblest and bravest’ Why does he say this? Was he the same character or were they different? What do you think?”

Most reader responses insist that Balam and Chac Mool were the same character (Figure 2. To read is to find a blind spot). However, there are not sufficient textual clues to confirm either this reply or the reply that Chac Mool was simply a witness who contemplated the life of Balam and thought that at some point he was Balam. This was confirmed by the author on the discussion thread that she participated in with the students[1]. Therefore, the mediator qualifies the students' assertions, asking them to provide arguments to be discussed by the literary community. To read is to try to answer the question that has no single answer or that leads to a blind spot (Figure 2).

Figure 2. To read is to find a blind spot

Since it is evident that the readers had understood that Balam, the main character, was a hero, the mediator decided to ask questions regarding Canek. Canek is a secondary character whose voice is hardly heard and who is known only by the actions described by the Chac Mool.

Consequently, the mediator opted for the following prompt: “I propose that we think of Canek: how does Canek value the attitude of Balam? And what do you think of Canek's attitude towards his partner and what is happening in his village?” The responses of the students were: selfish, very selfish and only thinks of himself. However, there is a response by ChicodelAtun that goes beyond the positioning of the main character by the author of the story: "I think he is a bit selfish, but it is also understandable that he is this way because in the Mayan culture the game was very important" (Figure 3, To understand is to take ownership of the secondary character).

This response infers the motives and feelings of Canek that determine his actions, that is, it refers to context of the Mayan culture. This is a product of the function of the mediator: to help the reader in the construction and foundation of his or her arguments.

 Figure 3. To understand is to take ownership of the secondary character


     1. The procedure of analysing the data through graphs of the conversational network facilitates the processing of the interactions between the participants of an online literary discussion, given that:

a.     The mediator's instructions and the reading responses form a conversational network
b.  The structure of the network contributes to the description and explanation of the principal and new functions of the mediator
       2. New functions of the mediator are determined:

a.     To help the reader's inner knowledge
b.     To propitiate reading as a contemplative experience
c.     To infer the actions and motivations of the secondary characters
      Online discussion, unlike literary discussion within the classroom, is an exercise in self-reflection for the mediating teacher. It becomes a space to professionalize their performance as a mediator, since it brings to light their successes, weaknesses and strengths by allowing them to read themselves. In addition, it is possible to identify who intervened, who replied to whom, the exact sequence of the entries and how they were thought out and written; as well as describing the reading trajectories of the participants, who replied, who assumed mediation roles and who did not participate in the chat. It also allows the participants to state everything they need, think and feel – even regarding the mediator – without any fears.

      It is advisable for teachers, librarians or promoters of reading to implement online literary discussions supervised by specialists, to bring an awareness to their mediation process and thus become better mediators.


Chambers, A. (2007). Dime. Los niños, la lectura y la conversación. México: FCE.

Colomer and Fittipaldi et al (2012).  La literatura que acoge: Inmigración y lectura de   álbumes. Barcelona: Banco del Libro-Gretel/SM.

Cuperman, R. C. (2010). Las respuestas lectoras en niños preadolescentes: espejo de la agresión. Bellaterra: journal of teaching and learning language and literature, 2(2), 123-137. Seen the 20th of March 2016 on http://www.raco.cat/index.php/Bellaterra/article/viewArticle/194352/0

Fittipaldi M. (2008). Travesías textuales: inmigración y lectura de imágenes. Trabajo final de investigación del Master en Didactica Lengua y Literatura. Dirección de T. Colomer, Departament de Didáctica de la Llengua, de la Literatura i les CCSS. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.

Fittipaldi M. (2012). Categorización de las respuestas infantiles ante los textos literarios. In Colomer y Fittipaldi La literatura que acoge: inmigración y lectura de álbumes (pp.69-86). Barcelona: Banco del Libro- Gretel/SM.

Ganges M. (2016). Lo que cuentan las estatuas del mundo. Ediciones Ekare

Munita y Manresa (2012). La categorización de las respuestas infantiles ante los textos literarios. Análisis de algunos modelos y propuestas de clasificación. In Colomer y Fittipaldi (ed)  La literatura que acoge: Inmigración y lectura de álbumes, pp.119-143. Barcelona: Banco del Libro-Gretel.

Rapley, T. (2014). Los análisis de la conversación, del discurso y de documentos en Investigación Cualitativa. Morata.

[1] See www.leoteca.es for information on the conversation thread the author had with the students.

[1] LEOTECA is an online community for children and adults with a shared interest in children’s and young adult literature.
[2] Telesecundaria is a system of distance education programs via satellites for secondary and high school students created by the government of Mexico.
[3] The Chac Mool refers to a Mayan sculpture depicting a reclining figure with its head facing 90 degrees from the front, supporting a bowl upon its stomach used to hold sacrificial offerings.
[4] Balam means jaguar in Mayan.
[5] The Ball Game was a sport played in Mesoamerica that had important ritual aspects and sacred ends. Played in a rectangular field, players could only hit the ball with their hips, knees and forearms. Penalties were given to the team who touched the ball with their hands or lost the ball more than once; the winning team was the one with the least number of faults or that scored the most points.